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Section 22.5 How to Recognize a Key After a Modulation

Look for the following cues when examining music containing modulations:

  1. Look for recurring accidentals, then add them to the key signature to determine the new key

    1. Lowered notes (like flats) usually create \(\hat{4}\) (as do the flats in key signatures)

    2. Raised notes (like sharps) often create \(\hat{7}\) , the leading tone

      1. If there are multiple raised notes, look for the “sharpest of sharps” (in key signature order) to determine which sharp is acting as \(\hat{7}\)

  2. If accidentals are canceled out, they indicate tonicizations or chromatic non-chord tones

Figure 22.5.1. J.S. Bach, English Suite No. 4 in F Major, BWV 809, Sarabande (ca. 1715)