## Section9.3Shorter Progressions from the Circle of Fifths

### Subsection9.3.1II-V-I

The “$\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{I}\right.$” progression can be found in many pieces of music in all styles—classical, popular, but especially jazz, since the Great American Songbook (popular songs from the 1930s, 40’s, and 50’s) on which jazz repertoire is built contains many examples of this progression.

### Subsection9.3.2VI-II-V-I

This progression can occur in one of the following three ways (or orderings):

• $\left.\text{vi}\right.$–$\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{I}\right.$

• $\left.\text{I}\right.$–$\left.\text{vi}\right.$–$\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$

• $\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{I}\right.$–$\left.\text{vi}\right.$

One can think of these reorderings as rotations, as shown in the example below.

#### Subsubsection9.3.2.1vi-ii-V-I

The $\left.\text{vi}\right.$–$\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{I}\right.$ progression contains the last four chords of the circle of fifths progression.

Here is another example from more recent popular music.

#### Subsubsection9.3.2.2I-vi-ii-V

Here are examples of the $\left.\text{I}\right.$–$\left.\text{vi}\right.$–$\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$ progression, sometimes called the 1950s progression because of its prevalence during that decade, although this progression was also widely used in the 1930s and '40s.

Listen for this bass line in the next recording.

#### Subsubsection9.3.2.3ii-V-I-vi

Below is an example of the $\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{I}\right.$–$\left.\text{vi}\right.$ progression. In this example, the $\left.\text{vi}\right.$ chord acts as a link between the $\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{I}\right.$ cadence in the middle of the phrase and the $\left.\text{ii}\right.$ chord at the beginning of the next phrase. This harmonic activity after the arrival on the $\left.\text{I}\right.$ chord is like a “turnaround” in jazz. We will discuss turnarounds more in a later chapter on jazz harmony.

If you view this video on YouTube, you will briefly see the double bass part, which has lead–sheet symbols on it.

### Subsection9.3.3III-VI-II-V

The $\left.\text{iii}\right.$–$\left.\text{vi}\right.$–$\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$ circle of fifths segment is sometimes repeated (or looped) within a song.

Sometimes, this progression is rotated to $\left.\text{ii}\right.$–$\left.\text{V}\right.$–$\left.\text{iii}\right.$–$\left.\text{vi}\right.$, as in “September,” the well known song by Earth, Wind, and Fire.