## Section22.5How to Recognize a Key After a Modulation

Look for the following cues when examining music containing modulations:

1. Look for recurring accidentals, then add them to the key signature to determine the new key

1. Lowered notes (like flats) usually create $\hat{4}$ (as do the flats in key signatures)

2. Raised notes (like sharps) often create $\hat{7}$ , the leading tone

1. If there are multiple raised notes, look for the “sharpest of sharps” (in key signature order) to determine which sharp is acting as $\hat{7}$

2. If accidentals are canceled out, they indicate tonicizations or chromatic non-chord tones