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Section 10.11 Incomplete Neighbor

Because composers are notorious for “breaking the rules,” you will encounter examples in the real world that either defy explanation or have multiple valid explanations. One “utility” non–chord tone is the incomplete neighbor.

Figure 10.11.1 Puccini, Gianni Schicchi, “O mio babbino caro”

You may also find incomplete double neighbor figures, especially in late Romantic music and jazz. Keep an open mind when analyzing music.