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Section 10.10 Retardation

A retardation is usually an accented non-chord tone, meaning it occurs on a downbeat. A retardation is approached by the same note and resolves up by step.
Figure 10.10.1. W.A. Mozart, Piano Sonata in C major, K. 545, II (1788)
Classical composers like Mozart often used retardations and suspensions at cadences in slow movements.