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Section 28.3 Adding Non–Chord Tones to a Chord Progression

Here are ideas for how to add non–chord tones (or “embellishments”) to one of the voice parts of an SATB chord progression.

  1. Repeated note: add upper or lower neighbor

    Figure 28.3.1
  2. Step down:

    1. Add a suspension by delaying the resolution of the note

      Figure 28.3.2
    2. Add an escape tone by moving by step in the opposite direction of the original stepwise movement, then leap

      Figure 28.3.3
    3. Add a double neighbor

      Figure 28.3.4
    4. Add a chromatic passing tone

      Figure 28.3.5
    5. Add an anticipation

      Figure 28.3.6
  3. Step up:

    1. Add a chromatic passing tone

      Figure 28.3.7
    2. Add an anticipation

      Figure 28.3.8
    3. Add an appoggiatura by leaping one step beyond the note of resolution, placing the appogiatura on the beat, displacing the note of resolution to occur after the beat

      Figure 28.3.9
    4. Add a double neighbor

      Figure 28.3.10
    5. Add retardation by delaying resolution of the note (rarely used)

      Figure 28.3.11
  4. Leap of 3rd:

    1. Fill in the 3rd with a passing tone

      Figure 28.3.12
    2. Add an appoggiatura by leaping one step beyond the note of resolution, placing the appogiatura on the beat, displacing the note of resolution to occur after the beat

      Figure 28.3.13
  5. Leaps of 4th or larger: do not embellish (for now)

Here is a basic framework with all possibilities labeled.

Here is one possible solution:

Notice that, when non–chord tones are added to different voices on the same beat, consonant intervals (3rds, 5ths, 6ths, or 8ves) are made. If consonant intervals can't be made, the voices are staggered rhythmically (as occurs on beats 3 and 4 in measure one of the example above).