## Section22.6Modulations with Chromatic Pivot Chords

You will sometimes encounter examples where the pivot chord is a chromatic chord in at least one (and sometimes both) of the keys involved in the modulation.

### Subsection22.6.1Secondary Common Chord

Below is an example where the pivot chord is a secondary chord in both keys.

### Subsection22.6.2Borrowed Common Chord

In modulation by borrowed common chord (or mode mixture), the pivot chord will be a borrowed chord in one of the keys involved in the modulation.

In the following example, a borrowed chord, $\left.\text{i}^{6}\right.$ in D♭ minor, rewritten as a C♯ minor chord, is reinterpreted as $\left.\text{vi}^{6}\right.$ in the second key, E major.

### Subsection22.6.3Neapolitan Common Chord

A particularly adventurous and imaginative pivot is the Neapolitan, which can bridge the gap between two foreign (or distantly related) keys.

In the example above, Schubert bridges the tonal distance between D minor and A♭ minor with $\left.\text{N}^{6}_{5}\right.$ (note the dominant–seventh quality of the Neapolitan in this instance), which acts as a $\left.\text{V}^{6}_{5}\right.$ in A♭ minor, a tritone away from D minor.

### Subsection22.6.4Augmented Sixth Common Chord

In the next chapter, we will examine how Augmented Sixth chords are enharmonically reinterpreted in a process known as enharmonic modulation.