## Section19.1Mode Mixture

Mode mixture typically consists of borrowing chords from the parallel minor during a passage in a major key. “Borrowed chords” refers to borrowing chords from minor and is synonymous with mode mixture. In the examples that follow, notice the lowered chromaticisms—♭$\hat{6}$ is most common but ♭$\hat{3}$ and ♭$\hat{7}$ also occur in borrowed chords.

Notice the emotional effect of switching to the minor mode.

A famous example that progresses from the major $\left.\text{I}\right.$ chord immediately to the minor $\left.\text{i}\right.$ chord is Richard Strauss's Also Sprach Zarathustra.

Later during the opening of Also Sprach Zarathustra, another borrowed chord occurs.

The next three examples have the pattern $\hat{1}$ –♭$\hat{7}$ –$\hat{6}$ –♭$\hat{6}$ in the bass line.

This same bass line can be found (in the same harmonic rhythm) in “Part of Your World.”

In the next example by Radiohead, the $\left.\text{iv}\right.$ chord (borrowed from minor) is preceded by the major $\left.\text{IV}\right.$ chord.

Mode mixture is also found in the music of the band Nirvana.

In the example above for “Lithium,” the Roman numerals are analyzed as triads instead of “5” chords because the third of the chord is either implied or occurs in the voice part (not shown).

In the next example from the third movement Brahms's Third Symphony, the $\left.\text{I}\right.$ chord alternates twice with a borrowed chord. The movement began in C minor, so there are three flats in the key signature, but this section is in C major.

A similar alternation between the $\left.\text{I}\right.$ chord and a borrowed chord (♭$\left.\text{VII}^{7}\right.$) happens in “Inchworm,” from the movie Hans Christian Andersen. Notice the special quality of the borrowed ♭$\hat{6}$ in the upper melody.

A famous example of mode mixture occurs in the “Waltz of the Flowers” from Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker.

A similar melody occurs in “One Day I'll Fly Away,” which, though it has a different harmonization, still uses mode mixture.